Shellfish responses to global environmental change – implications for aquaculture and marine conservation

CASE award with Colchester Oyster Fishery (STEINKE_E19ARIES)

Shellfish responses to global environmental change – implications for aquaculture and marine conservation

CASE award with Colchester Oyster Fishery (STEINKE_E19ARIES)

Project Description

Supervisors

Dr Michael Steinke (University of Essex, Biological Sciences)

Dr Tom Cameron (University of Essex, Biological Sciences)

Dr John Woods (University of Essex, Computer Science and Electronic Engineering)

Mr Paul Harding (Colchester Oyster Fishery)

Scientific background

Coastal habitats provide important socioeconomic resources, yet they are experiencing unprecedented pressures. Overharvesting, pollution and introduction of invasive species resulted in a major decline of the native oyster that required a shift to the introduced Pacific oyster in commercial aquaculture. Current conservation programmes including ENORI, aim to restore self-sustaining populations of native oysters to increase ecosystem services, sustainable fisheries and biodiversity.

In-situ mariculture of either of the two oyster species, and restoration of the native oyster, critically depends on successful spawning, settlement and/or collection of juvenile oysters. Thresholds of water temperature drive the variation in the timing of these events but this is unpredictable due to increasing temperature variation.

This project will address the sustainable expansion of oyster production and native oyster restoration through the application of remote sensing for shellfish spawning, behaviour and survival. You will direct the project’s research emphasis and develop scientific hypotheses to assess the ecophysiological diversity of oysters. You will start investigating native and introduced oysters and quantify:

  1. The inter-population variation in metabolic and behavioural responses to temperature.
  2. The release of reproductive cells in the field and during laboratory incubations.
  3. The inter-individual variation in oyster larvae and their settlement success under different temperatures and habitat types.

Research methodology

Supported by a research assistant funded via the £4.4 million UK Aquaculture Initiative, you will conduct laboratory incubations and collect scientific data in the Colne/Blackwater estuaries. Optode respirometry quantifies the metabolic activity and novel valvometry sensors measure growth, gaping, spawning and survival. Settlement assays and imaging tools can quantify larval behaviour and growth.

Training

You will join the EEM Group to work with marine biologists, electronic engineers and aquaculturists, and receive specific training on field/laboratory experimentation, oyster biology and conservation, electronic sensor networks, and the management of oyster fisheries. This will expose you to diverse disciplines and sectors, gaining professional skills in fieldwork, sensor technology and aquaculture. The ARIES DTP will provide generic training.

Person specification

You are an excellent communicator, can work cross-disciplinarily and have an enthusiastic personality and an aptitude for fieldwork, a degree in a relevant discipline (e.g. Marine/Freshwater Biology or Computer Science/Electronic Engineering).

Video: Oyster mating, who knew….(with hand gestures).

References

  • Schwartzmann C, Durrieu G, Sow M, Ciret P, Lazareth CE, Massabuau J-C (2011) In situ giant clam growth rate behavior in relation to temperature: A one-year coupled study of high-frequency noninvasive valvometry and sclerochronology. Limnol. Oceanogr. 56(5): 1940-1951; DOI:10.4319/lo.2011.56.5.1940
  • Lannig G, Flores JF, Sokolova IM (2006) Temperature-dependent stress response in oysters, Crassostrea virginica: Pollution reduces temperature tolerance in oysters. Aquat. Toxicol. 79(3): 278-287; DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.06.017
  • Green BC, Suggett DJ, Hills A, Steinke M (2012) Optimisation of a fast DMS sensor (FDS) for real time quantification of dimethyl sulfide production by algae. Biogeochemistry 110(1-3): 163-172; DOI:10.1007/s10533-011-9678-8
  • Camp EF, Dong LF, Suggett DJ, Smith DJ, Boatman TG, Crosswell JR, Evenhuis C, Scorfield S, Walinjkar A, Woods J, Lawson T (2017) A novel membrane inlet-infrared gas analysis (MI-IRGA) system for monitoring of seawater carbonate system. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 15(1): 38-53; DOI:10.1002/lom3.10140
  • Lown AE*, Hepburn LJ, Heywood JL, Cameron TC (2018) Density and seasonally dependent associations of biodiversity with the European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis): evidence for marine planning. Manuscript submitted to J. Appl. Ecol. (*EnvEast PhD student 1st paper

Open for applications

Please apply by sending a CV (including contact details of two academic referees) and a cover letter explaining your motivation and suitability for the PhD.

They should be sent to Emma Revill  ariesapp@essex.ac.uk  by 8th Jan 2019